Рефераты (summary) т.1|
рефераты (summary) т.2
Breeding, seed production, agriculture, economy and primary processing of flax
Proceedings of the All-Russian Flax Research Institute - VNIIL, Torzhok, 2002, v.30.
- Results and the main directions of development of researches in flax. Ponazhev V.P.
Research results and achievements in breeding, seed production, agrotechnics, technology of harvesting and primary processing of flax during 70 years activity of VNIIL.
- Role and tasks of the state research institutes for the development of flax growing brunch. Chernikov V.G.
Analysis of research activity and results of the work of research teams of the Russian institutes - VNIIL and VNIPTIML are prersented.
- Results and prospects of flax breeding in Russia. Marchenkov A.N.
The results of researches in biotechnology, genetics, phytopathology and breeding of flax in Russia are presented. The breeding prospects to 2006 are discussed.
- Development of flax breeding. Pavlova L.N., Alexandrova T.A.
Ethaps and tasks of breeding work on new flax cultivars at VNIIL are presented.
- New high yield flax cultivars A-93 and Lenok: their breeding and agronomic traits. Alexandrova T.A., Pavlova L.N., Marchenkov A.N., Krylova T.V., Loshakova N.I.
Breeding methods and material for the creation of the middle maturity and high yield cultivars A-93 and Lenok are discussed in the article. The date of breeding tests and the State Commission Trials are presented. Short characteristics of the cultivars are shown.
- Phytopathological methods of investigation in breeding programs to disease resistance in flax. Krylova T.V.
Flax cultivars with high (95-100%) resistance to rust created at VNIIL have been bred with using an effective and biologically proved field method of phytopathological evaluation of resistance on artificial infected lands and with using systematic control of virulentness of a field population of the pathogen.
Method of combined evaluation of resistance to rust and pasmo allows carrying on a breeding work for complex resistance to both deceases.
- Flax breeding to Аcomplex diseases resistance. Krylova T.V., Loshakova N.I., Kudriavtseva L.P., Alexandrova T.A., Marchenkov A.N., Pavlova L.N.
During the long-term breeding work the flax cultivars(A-29, Alexim, Lenok, A-93) with high complex resistance to rust and fusarium wilt have been created at VNIIL. High level of resistance to these diseases of institute's cultivars and breeding lines, as well as new methods carried out in the Institute on combined and separated infected-provocation backgrounds allow to begin the breeding work for a complex resistance to other diseases (antracnosis and pasmo).
- The resistance of flax cultivars to rust. Krylova T.V.
The results of investigation of the resistance of 35 cultivars of flax to rust, types of the resistance as well as virulentness of field population of pathogen are presented.
- Breeding aimed identification of rasas of fusarium in flax and identification of their aggressiveness. Loshakova N.I.
The date of investigation of cultivars-differentiators of Fusarium rasas in flax are discussed. The set of differentiators have been used for identification of 16 physiological rasas of the pathogen. Three rasas from them are high aggressive. The results of the selection of resistant forms of flax to the most aggressive stams are presented. These date can be used for breeding work on disease resistance.
- Genetic investigation of fusarium resistance in flax. Rozhmina T.A.
The data on the identification of fusarium resistance genes in flax among the samples of the National collection of Russian flax are presented. Phytopathological test and hybridological analysis which have been used by author resulted the identification ……
- Genetic-breeding possibilities for the creation of flax lines with resistance to pasmo. Kurchakova L.N.
Results of investigations carried out during 1995-2000 show the possibility to creation of forms with resistance to pasmo (Septoria linicola [Spreg. Gar]) by using the Genetic-breeding methods. The selection material with high resistance to pasmo as well as with complex of agronomic traits are bred in VNIIL. Tables.4.
- About the method of estimation and selection for the complex resistance to pasmo and antrocnosis. Kudriavtseva L.P.
The creation of artificial infected field nursery with inoculums of pasmo and antracnosis is the main principal of the selection for resistance to these diseases.
- Immunological characteristic of pasmo resistance in flax among collection samples. Kurchakova L.N.
During 1995-2000 years of the investigation in infected field nursery of 637 samples of flax collection the genotypes with high and middle resistance to pasmo (Septoria linicola [Spreg. Gar]) have been selected. Tables.1
- National collections of Russian flax and main trends in germplasm using for breeding tasks. A.A. Zuchenko, T. A. Rozhmina, I.V. Uschapovsky, L.N. Kurchakova, V.A. Baskakov, T. S. Kisileva.
The structure of the National collection of Russian flax and dynamic of samples gathering during ten years are presented in this work. Main directions of germplasm using in flax and linseed breeding are discussed. Results of numerous investigations which have been carried out by authors on the creating of genetic, traditional (yield, maturing, environmental factors resistance etc.) and non-traditional (heavy metals accumulation etc.) traits collections are presented. The methods of genetic variability induction as well as approaches for selection of the agronomic value flax forms are discussed.
Tables. 5, fig.1.
- Flax genetic resources in the Institute of Natural Fibers. K.Heller, S.Rulski
The aim, structure and results of work of the Genetic Bank of the Institute of Natural Fibers are presented.
- Initial material for flax breeding for fiber quality. Tikhvinsky S.F., Doronin S.V., Dudina A.N., Iuferova N.I., Shishkin A.N.
The relationship between anatomic structure of baste complex and elementary fibers are used for fiber quality breeding.
- Morphological estimation of flax samples. Popova G.A., Krepkov A.P.
Photosynthetic and yield characteristics of eight flax samples (morphobiological subspecies ) are studied.
- Culture of immature embryos as a source for creating genetic diversity of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Poliakov А.V.
The paper presents results of experiments carried out with the aim of investigation possibilities of embryo culture use in breeding programmes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). It was shown removing non well developed seeds and embryos of flax out of bolls on 8-12th day after pollination and placing them onto Sh-2 and MSFC media promoted production of 24-41 regenerants on 100 cultivated embryos. Some regenerants surpassed the initial cultivars and standarts in respect of stem length, mass of fibre, number of bolls and seeds, yield of strow.
- Molecular and quant-chemical aspects of flax peroxidase functions for the solving of ecological problems. Lapina G.P., Vasilieva L.Yu., Lazarev A.A.
The influence of the herbicide application on peroxidase functioning in flax is discussed.
- Induced mutants of flax and their biological and breeding characteristics. Bachalis K.
The results and breeding value of experiments in chemical mutagenesis with flax that started in 1971 at the Upite experimental station are discussed.
- Peculiarities of induced mutagenesis in flax. Uschapovsky I.V.
On the base of experimental date the peculiarities of induced mutagenesis for application in flax breeding are discussed.
- Breeding and agricultural researches in flax. Tikhvinsky S.F., Doronin S.V., Dudina A.N., Igitova N.S., Iuferova N.I., Shishkin A.N.
The results of breeding and agricultural researches in flax which have been done at the Viatka Agricultural Academy are presented.
- Results of flax cultivars investigations For adaptability. Sharov I.Y., Loginova L.A., Verbushkin M.V., Livanskaya G.A.
30th year analysis of the data of thechnological estimation of collection samples and cultivars of the State Commetee for Cultivar Testing is presented. Adaptive cultivars are detected.
- Ecologic-geogrphic tests of flax collection Samples in some Flax growing countries. T.Rozhmina, A. Zhuchenko, S. Kutusova, N. Bratch, M. Pavelek, J.P. Truve, L. Khotylyova, L. Polonetscaja, A. Boguk, F. Popescu, I. Marinescu.
The results of testing 55 collection forms in traditional zones of flax production of Russia (Torzhok, S-Peterburg) Czech (Shumperk) France (Fontaine - le -Dun), Belarus (Vitebck) Romania (Fundulea) for 1995-1997 are discussed.
- Expression of agronomic traits of different genotypes of flax in dependence of date of sowing. Rozhmina Т.A., Kurchakova L.N.
Same flax genotypes characterizing with a high yield and resistance to unfavorable environmental factors have been detected in the field tests of 50 collection samples.
- Biological progress in flax breeding and agriculture. K.Heller, S.Rulski.
Results of flax breeding and agriculture researches which have been done at the Institute of Natural Fibers are presented.
- Seed of flax as a functional food. Zubtsov V.A., Lebedeva T.I., Osipova L.L., Maslov M.A., Antipova N.V.
The composition and nutrient characteristics of flax seed are described.
- Increasing of efficiency of cultivar rotation of fibre flax on the basis of the accelerated propagation of elit seeds. Ponazhev V.P.
The results of researches providing study of productivity of uterine elite of 2nd year and original elite of new, highly genetic uniform fibre flax cultivars are stated.
During researches productivity and quality of seeds, straw of fibre flax has not been revealed decreasing after of transsowing of 2nd year uterine elite and in comparison with double transsowing of original elite usual crops. On the basis of results of researches the circuit was developed and the system of accelerated cultivar rotation of fibre flax offered.
- Primary seed-production of fibre-flax: formation and ways of its perfection. Pavlov E.I., Pavlova L.M.
The analysis of method formation and perfection of fibre flax primary seed-production in Russia was carried out.
- New ways of fibre flax seed sowing at the first stages of primary seed production. Karpovich T.N.
Using of flax seeders SN-16P and SL-16 for laying of nurseries of propagation of seeds of 1st year has advantages in comparison with sowing one row seeder SL-1.
Narrow-row way of sowing with interrows 7,5 sm by seeders SN-16P and SL-16 provided high field germination of seeds 80,1 - 88,2 %, and authenticly increased of seed yield accordingly on 290 and 280 kg/ga, straw - on 990 and 1290 kg/gа; raised cooficient of seed propagation in 1,6-1,7 times.
- Methods for plant estimation during formation of the batch of flax elite seeds. Strogonova G.A., Pavlov E.I., Ponazhov V.P., Janyshyna A.A.
The efficiency of primary seed production on maintenance of varietial uniformity and propagation of elit seeds depends on used technique of selection of typical for cultivar plants. The accelerated method of creation of parties of fibre flax elite seeds allows to increase quantity of selected plants and volumes of created parties of elit seeds considerably.
- Methods of the control for cultivar qualities of fibre flax seeds. Janyshyna A.A., Pavlov E.I.
Cultivar quality of seeds of agricultural plants were determined by methods of field approbation of crops, earth and laboratory control. As applied to fibre flax the most authentic data can be received at the earth control.
- New method of initial plant estimation in primary seed production of fibre flax. Pavlov E.I., Ponazhev V.P., Janyshyna A.A.
The main characteristic of selection in primary seed production of fibre flax is percentage of fibre in technical part of stems. The extraction of fibre is accompanied labour- and power-capacious processes. The method of estimation of typicalness of uterine plants of fibre flax on fibrousness is developed and approbated on a number of cultivars which based on the characteristic "the conteut of bast ".
- Increasing of fruitful properties of fibre flax elit seeds during their presowing preparation. Ponazhev V.P.
The results of study of comparative efficiency of ways presowing preparation of fibre flax elit seeds with use seed clearning machine SOM - 300 and gravitational separator PGS-1 are stated. It was revealed that the removal from sowing material less valuable fractions, characterizing lowered parameters of quality raises fruitful properties of original elite seeds.
- The reasons of non uniform seed formation on colour of fibre flax. Ponazhev V.P.
The results of study of the reasons of flax fibre seed formation with black colouring, feature of seed blacken in various conditions are stated. The role of the biological factors and also factors of meteorological and other properties in display of seed blacken was reflected. The investigated methods ensuring obtaining of homogeneous on colour, qualitative seeds of fibre flax are offered.
Seeds of fibre flax are non-uniform on colour and other qualitative parameters. The densities of seeds with non-standard black colouring reaches 20 %. Their presence at sowing material reduces its fruitful properties, efficiency of selection in primary seed production. The removal of poor-quality seeds from the received crop requires the large expenses of work and means.
- Dependence of the seed quality on a number of balls per flax plant. Ponazhev V.P.
The results of investigations on quality of elite seeds in dependence on different number of balls per flax plant are presented. Correlation between weight of seeds, energy of germination and amount of balls per plant is established.
- Germination and humidity. To the development of the new standard on sowing qualities of fibre flax seeds. Pavlov E.I., Ponazhov V.P., Janyshyna A.A.
Statistical data of state seed inspections about actual condition of seed quality have shown that as a whole for 1989-1997 the quantity of substandard fibre flax seeds on germination in the country has made 43,7 %, seeds of I class - 1,9 %. One of the main reasons of deterioration of germination is disturbance of technology of drying flax heap.
- Aftereffect of green manuring of soil on the of yield and quality fiber flax. Tihomirova V.J., Matykhin A.P.
Green manuring of soddy podzolic medium - loamy soil increased the yield of flax seed by 0,6 center per ha (18%), improved the quality of long fibre under the drought and normal soil moistering conditions by 0,4 and 1,1 number, increased the content of all and long fibre by 4,0 and 1,4% under the durable drought conditions. Tables.2.
- The physiological role and agronomical efficiency of potassium fertilizers for flax under the different content of potassium in the soil. Tihomirova V.J.
The use of chlorid potassium on the light - and medium - loamy soils with low and medium content of mobile potassium (20-92 mg/kg) heightened the yield of all fibre by 14 and 25, the yield of long fibre - by 19%.
Decrease the efficiency of potassium fertilizer observed under the content of potassium more 100, on the light soils, more 190 mg/kg on the medium - loamy. The most role of potassium for increase quality of long fibre observed on the light - loamy soil under the deficient of soil moisture. Tables 4.
- Method of accounting of lime dozes and their efficiency in flax crop rotation. Sorokina O.Y., Petrova L.I.
Lime dozes for soddy podzolic soils of the Central area of Russia under replicated soil liming are 2,0-2,5 t/ha on light-loamy strong and medium sour soil, 3,5-4.0 t/ha on medium-loamy strong acid soil, 1,0-2,0 t/ha on medium-loamy medium and weakly sour soil. Lime should not be applied on light-loamy weakly asid soil in flax crop rotation.
- Energy - saving method of application of fertilizers for fiber flax. Kuzmenko N.N.
The localized method of application of fertilizers for tiber flax provides the increasing of using ration of nutrients yielding ability of fiber on 0,5-2,5, seeds -on 0,5-1,2 center per ha, imporoves of flax production quality. Energetical consumption of alive work are reduced on 42%, consumption of fuel - on 53%, power consumption of means of mechanization - on 64%, general consumption - on 32% in comparison with broadcas tapplication.
- Increase field germination of seeds of fiber flax and yield of flax production at use of a new seeder SKL -3, 6. Sukhopalova Т.Р.
In field experiment and experiment in agricultural condition on soddy podzolic medium soil is established, that in sowing flax by the new combined flax seeder SKL-3, 6, carrying out simultaneously with sowing the final presowing soil treatment, field germination seeds increases on 16%, of all fibre yields - on 18, of seeds - on 11%. The advantage of a new seeder is preserved in minimizing presowing soil treatment (one harrowing of dry spring). Tables.2.
- Investigation of Banvel as a component of the bac mixes in flax. Zakharova L.M.
The date of Banvel investigations as well as its bac mixes and premixes in flax shows the high technical efficiency of these herbicide, that lead to the standardizing flax production and increasing the flax yield.
- New sulphonilurea herbicides in flax. Zakharova L.M.
The high herbicide activity of aminosulphurona (Grodil and Secator) against wide range of dicotyledon weeds in flax and the increasing of the crop yield have been observed in experimental tests. Tables.4.
- The system of preventing soil cultivation for flax. Matiukhina G.N.
The system of preventing soil cultivation for flax growing is described. Application of the elements of this system can get the decreasing of weedy level and the increasing of long fibre and seed yield.
- Flax yield dependence on manner of nitrogen fertilizer application and on agrochemical properties of the soil. Z. Yankauskene.
The results of the effect of different doses and time of application of nitrogen fertilizers as well as the characteristics of soil in flax yield are discussed.
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